IZET ŠABOTIĆ „BOŠNJAČKE MUHADŽERSKE ENKLAVE U MAKEDONIJI NEKADA I DANAS“

U radu se govori o složenim muhadžerskim pokretima, vezanim za iseljavanje bošnjačkih muhadžira na prostoru Makedonije. Ti procesi su trajali od uspostave austrougarske vlasti u Bosni i Hercegovini (1878) do kasnih 70tih godina XX stoljeća. Riječ je složenim procesima, vezanim za sudbunu stotina hiljada ljudi. Muhadžerski procesi su imali uticaja na ukupne prilike na prostoru Balkana. U početnoj fazi značajan broj muhadžira se iz Bosne i Hercegovine kretao put Osmanskog carstva, odnosno Kosovskog, Bitolskog i Solunskog vilajeta i dalje prema unutrašnjosti Osmanskog carstva. Značajan broj bošnjačkih muhadžira se naselio na prostoru Makedonije, vjerujući da će to biti trajno njihovo prebivalište. Spletom historijskih okolnosti, jednom broju muhadžira Makedonija je poslužila kao privremeno prebivalište, pa su nakon izvjesnog vremena muhadžeri nastavili svoje putovanja dalje prema unutrašnjosti Osmanskog carstva. Migracioni muhadžerski pokreti Bošnjaka bili su izraženi i u vrijeme prve Jugoslavije, kao i nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. U tim procesima, Makedonija je bila važan tranzitni centar. Na desetine hiljada muhadžira, prvobitno bi se doselio u Makedoniju, odakle bi nakon stvaranja uslova odlazio dalje za Tursku. Međutim, značajan broj muhadžira je ostao u Makedoniji stvarajući posebne enklave, koje su se uprkos surovoj stogodišnjoj historiji održali na prostoru Makedonije do danas.

The paper deals with complex refugee movements related to the emigration of Bosniak refugees in the territory of Macedonia. These processes lasted from the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878) until the late 70s of the 20th century. It is a complex process, linked to the fate of hundreds of thousands of people. Refugee processes had an impact on the overall situation in the Balkans. In the initial phase, a considerable number of refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina moved the route of the Ottoman Empire, that is, the Kosovo, Bitola and Thessaloniki vilayas, and further towards the interior of the Ottoman Empire. A significant number of Bosniak refugees settled on the territory of Macedonia, believing that this would be their permanent residence. Through a series of historical circumstances, a number of refugees used Macedonia as a temporary residence, and after a while, the refugees continued their journey further towards the interior of the Ottoman Empire. The migration movements of Bosniaks were also expressed in the time of the first Yugoslavia, as well as after the Second World War. In these processes, Macedonia was an important transit center. Tens of thousands of refugees, originally moved to Macedonia, where, after creating the conditions, they would go further to Turkey. However, a significant number of refugees remained in Macedonia creating special enclaves, which despite the ruinous centuries-old history remained in place in Macedonia’s area until today.

Nastavi čitati IZET ŠABOTIĆ „BOŠNJAČKE MUHADŽERSKE ENKLAVE U MAKEDONIJI NEKADA I DANAS“

DR. FRANZISKA ANNA ZAUGG „RESISTANCE AND ITS OPPONENTS IN THE REGION OF SANDŽAK AND KOSOVO“

Julian Amery, in his function as Special Operations Executive (SOE) liaison officer from 1941 to 1945, “variously associated with the Resistance Movements [sic] of the Balkans, and more especially with those of the South Slavs and the Albanians”, wrote in his memoirs: “the Resistance Movement of the second [sic] World War will not lack their memorials.”[i] However, the past seventy years have proven Amery’s statement incorrect. When we think back to the events of the Second World War in Southeast Europe, we mainly remember the communist partisans who were under the command of Tito’s and Enver Hoxha’s officers.[ii] Other resistance movements only became known to Western Europe when nationalist groups in the 1990s tried—and still do today— to exploit their splendour for nationalist causes.[iii]

Until now, partisans’ and collaborators’ actions and proceedings were often viewed in a national perspective—because after the conclusion of World War Two the old and new borders helped to confirm the old and new national states. However, resistance against Fascism and National Socialism in the Balkans was multifaceted and multinational in character, and much more than a mere communist movement. In recent years, I have investigated different forms of collaboration with and resistance against the German and/or Italian occupiers in Southeast Europe, particularly in Kosovo and the bordering territories. Many movements worked together either wholly or partially, and many fought each other. Nevertheless, one aspect remained the same: Transnationality and the crossing of borders were common threads amongst all resistance movements in this part of Southeast Europe.[iv]Therefore, this contribution will discuss and highlight the approach of rethinking borders as variable factors.

The two regions, Kosovo and Sandžak, which are introduced later, were not only hotspots of extreme interethnic conflicts but acted also as transnational settings of various resistance (and collaborative) groups during the Second World War. It is due to these circumstances that the two regions and their bordering territories remain unique cases for historical investigation. Which benefits or intentions, which constraints or political opinions were reasons to fight in one unit or another—and to fight against or alongside the Germans and Italians? Who is who in this complex web of resistance, occasionally collaborating and fully collaborating coalitions? And what were the intersecting and dividing factors of these transnational resistance networks?

Nastavi čitati DR. FRANZISKA ANNA ZAUGG „RESISTANCE AND ITS OPPONENTS IN THE REGION OF SANDŽAK AND KOSOVO“